The manufacturing of an Automotive body is dependent on considerations regarding the regulations and legislation, as well as the needs of customers. Manufacturers prefer lightweight, economical, safe, and recyclable featured materials.
Material selection, especially for the body, is based on various characteristics, including mechanical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical resistance, manufacturing efficiency, durability, and manufacturing efficiency. For all of the requirements, steel is the best choice for manufacturers. Steel has become stronger, lighter and more rigid due to the advancements in the steel industry. Steel is not just vehicle bodies. It also includes the engine, chassis and many other parts. Low-cost and iron are the key components of vehicle structure in bulk manufacturing.
Steel’s natural ability to absorb impact energy from a crash is the best reason to use it as a body construction.
Aluminum is a common material in the automotive industry. It is used in both chassis and body structures. Aluminum can be used to reduce the Vehicle’s weight. Aluminum’s most important characteristics are its low weight, high specific energy absorption, and specific strength. Although aluminum is resistant to corrosion, it cannot replace steel parts due to its low modulus. These parts must be re-engineered to have the same mechanical strength.
Aluminum usage in the automotive industry has increased dramatically in a short time. Aluminum castings are used in the automotive industry for pistons, cylinder heads and intake manifolds. It is used in chassis applications as wheels, brackets, brake parts, suspension, steering parts, and instrument panels. Aluminum is used in body structures, exterior attachments like doors, bonnets, crossbeams and doors, as well as for finishing and interior decoration.
Recent improvements have shown that 50% of the steel can be saved by using aluminum to replace it. This can lead to a 20-30% reduction in vehicle weight.
Magnesium, another lightweight metal, is becoming more important in automotive engineering. Magnesium is 33% lighter than Aluminium and 75% less than steel elements. Magnesium parts have many mechanical limitations that require a special design for automotive products.
Magnesium is less strong than Aluminium in terms of tensile strength and fatigue strength. It also has lower creep strength. While magnesium alloys have a lower modulus and hardness than Aluminium, their thermal expansion coefficient is higher. Pure magnesium is not suitable for use because of its low mechanical strength. It must be combined with other components. Mg-AlZn is the most popular alloying component for room temperature applications. It includes zinc, Aluminium and manganese.
An automotive company must reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel efficiency, which is an important issue. More than any other factor, lightweight metals can increase fuel efficiency. Experiments have shown that a weight loss of 10% can result in a 6-8 percent increase in fuel consumption. There are three methods to reduce weight:
* Substituting elements with high specific weight and moderate density materials that do not decrease rigidity or durability. You can replace steel with aluminum, magnesium or composites, and foams.
Optimizing load-carrying components and exterior attachments to reduce their weight.
Optimizing production processes, including reducing spot welding and arranging new joining techniques.
The most important industry-driven factor in the automotive industry is cost. This determines whether any new component can be used for vehicle components. It encompasses three main economic factors: the actual cost of raw material, the manufacturing added value, and the design cost.
Aluminum and magnesium alloys can be more expensive than cast irons and steel. Because of the high cost, it is important to justify the selection of light elements based on advanced functionality. The high cost of composite materials is a major barrier to their use.
Safety is a key part of the automotive industry. The chassis and manufactured body components must pass the quality control. Safety is a key part of the automotive industry. The quality control for the chassis and body components must be met. Two important safety measures for the automotive industry are crashworthiness (or penetration resistance). Crashworthiness is the ability to absorb energy using controlled crash modes and mechanisms. Penetration resistance refers to the ability to absorb all energy without fragment piercing.
The three most important issues in the automotive industry are “protection and reduction of CO2 emissions”, “recycling,” and “protection of natural resources”. Europe and Asia have established guidelines for recyclability. The United States has no regulations or issues regarding automotive end-of-life. The steel material is easily recyclable, while Aluminium can be expensive.